Debug Label Glossary.


3D Touch.

3D Touch is a method of interacting with touch screens. Prior to 3d Touch your iOS Device knew where you were touching the screen, but not how hard you tapped ore pressed it. With 3D touch your iOS Device can tell how hard you make contact with the display. It works the same way a piano keyboard does. On a piano the harder you press the key, the louder the note sounds. While 3D touch does not affect the volume of your device, it can change the effect of some Voiceover gestures.

3D Touch and the telephone keypad.

When the keypad is displayed for entering phone numbers or your password, and typing style is set to Standard Typing Mode, 3D Touch allows you to place your finger on the number and gradually increase pressure until the number is typed. That way you don't have to tap twice. Don't try this if you use Touch or Direct Typing modes. You will just get every number entered twice.

Discussed In:

  1. Unit 1: Orientation and Basics, Section 1.3.
  2. Unit 1: Working with Apps, Section 4.1
  3. Unit 2: Managing Contacts, Section 5.6
  4. Unit 3: Phone Basics, Section 5.2


3G stands for Third Generation cellular network. It features increased bandwidth and transfer rates to accommodate phone based audio and video files, as well as Web based applications. A 3G network can reach transfer speeds of up to 3 megabits per second, which means they can download a three minute song in about 15 seconds. This is up to 32 times faster than the previous generation of cellular networks.

Your iOS Device will indicate if you have this type of connection in the Status Bar.



4G stands for Fourth Generation cellular network. There are several flavors of 4G networks in use. The LTE after the 4G stands for "Long Term Evolution," and in ideal conditions it can operate at up to 100 megabits per second. Generally it produces transfer speeds of 10 to 30 megabits per second depending on weather, terrain around the tower, number of people using it at the time, and distance from the tower. This is still three to ten times faster than 3G. So, a three minute song could download in less than 2 seconds.

Your iOS Device will indicate if you have this type of connection in the Status Bar.



The Action Row is the term uses to describe a row which is displayed by many applications just below the Status Bar. Most Action Rows contain one or more of the following items:

  • A "Back" or "Cancel" button usually in the leftmost position.
  • A Heading that states the name of the screen being displayed within the application.
  • A "Done" or "Save" button usually in the rightmost position to save changes you make.

Sometimes other buttons can be found in the Action Row. For example, "Next Message," "Previous Message," and "Send" are shown in Mail. "All" and "Missed" are displayed in Phone. "Year", "Month," and "Day" are displayed in the Calendar app to control the Calendar View.

Split Action Rows.

Sometimes on devices with small displays the Action Row can be split with part of it appearing at the top of the display, and the remainder at the bottom. One common example of this occurs when an email message is read. The Back button and the Previous/Next message buttons are on the top row. But the Action Row continues at the bottom of the screen with the Mark Message, Move, Delete, Reply, and Compose buttons completing the Action Row.

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Airplane Mode.

Airplane mode isolates your iOS Device by preventing it from sending or receiving any electronic signals. This prevents expending the battery looking for cellular or wireless signals in an area where there are none. Normally Airplane Mode should be Off to allow your device to send and receive signals.

App Switcher.

The app switcher allows you to switch between all running applications, and to close them when you are done. To close an app, use these steps:

  1. Make the Icon for the app you want to close the Current Item.
  2. Use the Close app gesture.

- or -
  1. Make the Icon for the app you want to close the Current Item.
  2. Use the Set Mode gestur until VoiceOver says, "Close," followed by the app name.
  3. use the Activate gesture.

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Apple Access.

(877) 294-3930: This number provides 24x7 direct access to Apple representatives who are trained in providing support using Apple Accessibility services. Tthis number is U.S. only. suggests that you add this number to your contacts list so you always have it with you.


Attachments are files that can be added to text or email messages. They can be photos, videos, word processing documents, spreadsheets, Contact Cards, or just about anything.

IMPORTANT! Attachments can contain malicious content. Be careful to open attachments only from trusted sources. Even if an Email appears to be from a friend or colleague, you still need to be careful. It is very easy to spoof an email address. So if the attachment seems out of character for that person, confirm with them first that they are the ones who actually sent it.

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Blocked Caller

Calls from a blocked caller are sent directly to Voicemail, and texts are blocked. The person calling or sending the text is not informed that they have been blocked.

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Bluetooth is a wireless method of communications for devices within close proximity to each other, usually within 10 yards. A line of sight is also almost always required. Bluetooth accessories such as headsets, keyboards, and even vehicles can be connected to an iOS Device by using the Bluetooth option in the Settings main menu.

Bluetooth interacts with iBeacons to provide a way to create and monitor areas that advertise certain identifying information.


Braille is a system of raised dots invented in France to enable those who cannot see print to read letters, numbers, and punctuation marks by feeling the dots with their fingers. Each letter, number or punctuation mark is defined in a Braille "cell," which traditionally has two columns of three dots. This is known as six dot Braille. The dots in each column are numbered from top to bottom. Thus, the left-hand column has dots 1, 2, and 3, and the right-hand column has dots 4,5, and 6. Different combinations of dots in each cell indicate different letters, numbers, or punctuations.

Braille Styles.

6 Dot braille.

Six dot Braille is the traditional for of Braille consisting of two columns of three dots each that make up a single Braille Cell. The dots in the left column are numbered 1, 2, and 3 from the top down. The dots in the right column are 4, 5, and 6.

8 dot Braille.

Eight dot Braille was developed in the United States, because there simply weren't enough combinations of dots in the traditional six dot Braille cell to meet modern needs. The 8 dot Braille cell has two columns of four dots. The left-hand dots are typically numbered downward as 1, 2, 3, 7; and the right-hand dots are numbered downward as 4, 5, 6, 8. This allows dots 1 through 6 to have the same cell locations as their six dot Braille counterparts. This system is particularly useful in technical and scientific documents, as well as Braille music notation. You must have an iPhone 6+, iPhone 6S+, iPhone 7+, or any iPad to be able to use 8 dot Braille style. The remainder of this discussion will be limited to 6 dot Braille.

Uncontracted and Contracted Braille.

Braille can be found in two Grades. Grade 1 braille is also known as Uncontracted Braille. Grade 2 Braille is known as Contracted Braille. The two styles of Braille we've talked about so far are both Uncontracted Braille. In Uncontracted Braille, every letter, digit, and punctuation mark is represented by at least one Braille cell.. These styles of Braille made hard copy Braille books large and heavy.

In Grade 2 or Contracted Braille, the dot patterns of letters can be combined to indicate both letters, or even an entire word. Also, there are many standard word abbreviations. For example, the word, "Tomorrow," can be contracted to the letters, "T," and "M." Unless specified otherwise, any discussions of Braille at will use Grade 1, or Uncontracted Braille.

The Pattern Behind 6 Dot Braille.

The letters and numbers of six dot Braille are organized in Groups of 10. The digits 1, through 9, and zero use the same combinations of dots as, "A," through "J,". The letter "A," corresponding to the digit 1, and "B," corresponding with the digit 2, and so on. The letter "I," being the ninth letter of the alphabet corresponds to the digit 9, and "J," the tenth letter of the alphabet, corresponds to the digit zero.

The letter "K," is the eleventh letter of the alphabet. It uses the same pattern as the first letter of the alphabet, "A," except dot 3 has been added to the bottom. The letter "L," is the twelth letter and corresponds to "B," with dot 3 added. This continues through letter "T,", which is the twentieth letter of the alphabet. Letter "T," corresponds to "J," the 10th letter of the alphabet, but dot 3 is added.

The letters "U," and "V," the 21st, and 22nd letters of the alphabet correspond to "A," and "B," except that now dots 3 and 6 have been added. However, there is no "W" in the French language, and this letter breaks the pattern. The letters "X," "Y," and "Z," continue the pattern as though "W" wasn't there. They correspond to the letters "C," "D," and "E," but with dots 3 and 6 added.

Since the digits 1 through 9, and zero use the same combinations as the letters "A," through "J," how do you distinguish letters from digits? You must precede each string of digits with a cell that has dots 3,4,5, and 6. This indicates that the characters between that cell and the next blank cell are to be considered digits.

The table below shows the codes for the 26 basic letters, and may help illustrate the pattern more clearly.

Table of 6 dot BrailleCharacters.
Digits. 1 =
dot 1.
2 =
dots 1, and 2.
3 =
dots 1, and 4.
4 =
dots 1, 4, and 5.
5 =
dots 1, and 5.
6 =
dots 1, 2, and 4.
7 =
dots 1, 2, 4, 5.
8 =
dots 1, 2, and 5.
9 =
dots 2, and 4.
0 =
dots 2, 4, and 5.
Letter Group 1
"A," through "J."..
"A" =
dot 1.
"B" =
dots 1, and 2.
"C" =
dots 1, and 4.
"D" =
dots 1, 4, and 5.
"E" =
dots 1, and 5.
"F" =
dots 1, 2, and 4.
"G"7 =
dots 1, 2, 4, 5.
"H" =
dots 1, 2, and 5.
"I" =
dots 2, and 4.
"J" =
dots 2, 4, and 5.
Letter Group 2
"K," through "T."..
"K" =
dot 1, and dot 3.
"L" =
dots 1, 2, and 3.
"M" =
dots 1, 3, and 4.
"N" =
dots 1, 3, 4, and 5.
"O" =
dots 1, 3, and 5.
"P" =
dots 1, 2, 3, and 4.
"Q"7 =
dots 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.
"R" =
dots 1, 2, 3, and 5.
"S" =
dots 2, 3, and 4.
"T" =
dots 2, 3, 4, and 5.
Letter Group 3
"U," through "Z.".
"U" =
dot 1, 3, and 6.
"V" =
dots 1, 2, 3, and 6.
"X" =
dots 1, 3, 4, and 6.
"Y" =
dots 1, 3, 4, 5, and 6.
"Z" =
dots 1, 3, 5, and 6.

The pattern for the letter, "W," is dots 2, 4, 5, and 6.

Braille Capitalization.

There is no distinction between upper and lower case Braille letters. If you want to indicate a capital letter, precede it with a cell containing only dot 6. If you want an entire word to be considered capitalized, then precede the word with two consecutive cells containing only dot 6. Remember that fully capitalized words in an email or text message may be considered yelling by the recipient.

Braille Punctuation.

Below is a list of the most common punctuation marks and their 6 dot Braille cell equivalents..

  • Period, dots 2, 5, and 6.
  • Comma, dot 2.
  • Apostrophe, dot 3.
  • Semi-colon, dots 2, and 3.
  • Colon, dots 2, and 5.
  • Hyphen, dots 3, and 6.
  • Question Mark, dots 2,3, and 6.
  • Exclamation Point, dots 2,3, and 5.
  • Forward slash, dots 3, and 4. Useful for entering web addresses.
  • The @ sign, required to enter an Email address. Two cells are required. The first cell has dot 4 only, and the second has dot 1 only.

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Camera Roll.

The Camera Roll is where all pictures taken with your iOS Device are stored. The pictures are stored locally on the device only. They are not backed up unless you have an active iCloud account and have enabled Photo Stream. Unless the device is backed up regularly to your computer or iCloud account, pictures stored only in the camera roll will be lost if your device is lost or stolen.


A character is a single letter, number or other symbol. For example, iOS7 has four characters; I, O, S, and 7. This social security number, 987-65-4321, has 11 characters. The dashes count. The phrase, Welcome back, has 12 characters; 7 for the word welcome, four in the word back, and one for the blank space in between. Even blank spaces count as characters. Put a bunch of characters together and you get a String. For example, the word “Hello is a string of five characters. The title of the TV drama 24 is a two character string consisting of the digits 2 and 4.

Contact Card.

The contact card contains all the individual fields of information about a single contact, such as; Name, company, phone numbers, email addresses and street addresses. This is similar to the way each card in a rolodex contains information about a specific person. The contact card can be viewed by Activating a contact from the contacts list.

When the Contact card is first opened, it is in View mode. In this mode allfields you have filled in about the contact are displayed. Using an Activate gesture on a phone number, email address, or street address will dial the number, start a new email message, or open the maps app respectively. The notes field is also displayed in this mode. This is the only field on the screen you can activate for editing.

From View mode, pressing the "Edit" button will switch the card to edit mode where you can update all the fields, or delete the contact card.

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This is the environment or conditions in which gestures occur. The effects of some gestures change dramatically depending on these conditions. These gestures are called Context Sensitive. The Single Finger Double Tap is an example of a gesture that is highly context sensitive.

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Control Center.

The Control Center has shortcuts to some of the most common settings requiring quick adjustments without having to navigate through the settings menus. To activate the Control Center do the following:

  1. If the Status Bar is not visible, press the Home Screen button to display the Home Screen.
  2. Make any icon in the Status Bar the Current Item.
  3. Use the Next Screen gesture to display the Control Center.
  4. Adjust the settings you want.
  5. Press the Home button to return to the screen you were on prior to displaying the Control Center.


A conversation is a series of text messages exchanged between two or more people. For example, if Tom sends this text message to Jim and Bob, "Hey Guys! come experience the game on my big new TV with surround sound," and Jim responds , "OK. I'll bring the beer," and Bob also responds , "What about some pizza?" Finally, Tom responds , "Ok Bob, you pick it up." For convenience, will refer to each exchange in the conversation as a response.

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According to "Internet cookies are small pieces of information in text format that are downloaded to your computer when you visit many Web sites. The cookie may come from the Web site itself or from the providers of the embedded advertising banners or other graphics that make up a Web page. Thus visiting a single Web site can actually result in the downloading of multiple cookies, each from a different source. You may never actually visit a page of one of the major advertising agencies like but you will still get cookies from them."

While cookies cannot contain viruses or malware, they can be used to track your browsing habits. Let's say for example that you have been looking at multiple web sites to find kitchen appliances. Suddenly you see more ads for kitchen appliances popping up as you browse. This is probably the result of a tracking cookie.

Crowd Sourced.

Rather than hire people to enter data, many companies use the users of their products to help them build the data their services need. Here is an example of how it works. Your iOS Device can report the position you were in when you bought a particular app from the App Store. Apple can then use the data from thousands of devices to determine if some applications are more popular in a given area than others.

Another example is crowd sourcing traffic data. Devices with cellular connectivity can report their position, direction and speed to Apple or third party apps you have given permission to read this data. Based on the data from many devices, it is possible to determine where slowdowns or stopages are occurring. This is much more accurate and less expensive than hiring someone to watch banks of monitors.

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When an item is temporarily unusable, VoiceOver will say, "Dimmed," after it speaks the items name and type. For example, when creating a new text message, the Send button is dimmed until there is at least one addressee in the "To" field, and either some text in the message or at least one attachmentin. When these conditions are met, the send button is no longer dimmed and can be activated.


Spelled D, O, X, X, I, N, G, this is the act of gathering personal data about someone from multiple internet sources or through hacking, and then threatening to make that data available to the public.

DVS, Descriptive Video Services.

This service provides narration that describes visual elementsb which viewers with vision loss would ordinarily miss by inserting them within the natural pauses in dialogue. These elements include; actions, facial expressions, costumes, gestures, scene changes, and onscreen text such as credits.

In order for you to take advantage of Descriptive Video Services, the following conditions must be met.

  • The film maker, TV program creator or other content provider must create the DVS track and distribute it their video.
  • The service which delivers the content, such as a cable company, must transmit the descriptive content.
  • Your equipment, such as your TV, iOS Device, or other video player must be able to receive and process the track. For TV this is often called Second Audio Program, SAP.

Here are some sites with additional information on Descriptive Video Services.

  1. Summary of FCC Rules Regarding Video Description. The info is on the page after the closed captioning information.
  2. American Council f/t Blind: Audio Described Movies.
  3. American Council f/t Blind: Video Description on TV.



Spelled E, m, o, j, i. The word emoji means “picture letter” in Japanese. This is somewhat like ancient heiroglyphics. Rather than using words, pictures are used to convey ideas, feelings, locations, and so on.

Emoji can be accessed through the key iOS 8 has added to the left of the Dictate key. Apple has put descriptive text with each image in the Emoji keyboard, and the images are broken into categories, which can be accessed by using Tabs at the bottom of the keyboard. The Emoji option can be hidden using these steps:

  1. Open the Settings application and select General Settings.
  2. Select Keyboard.
  3. The first button on this screen says, "Keyboards 2, Button," and can be pressed using the Activate gesture.
  4. From the Keyboards screen find the Emoji button and Activate it. This will stop the display of the Emoji option.


These are combinations of special characters tthat resemble faces with different expressions. The intent is to communicate some emotion after astatement or question. For example: a colon followed by a dash then a closing parenthesis looks like a smiling face turned sideways. It's used to indicate happiness or to indicate that the writer is kidding. Change the closing parenthesis to an opening parenthesis, and now the face is frowning to indicate sadness or anger.

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Encryption is the process of combining the contents of data with a secret key in such a way that scrambles the content into a totally new form that is unintelligible to unauthorized users. Only someone with the correct key can decrypt the information and convert it back into usable data. Encrypting data doesn’t stop someone who is not the intended recipient of the data from intercepting it, but it helps ensure that he won’t be able to decipher it if he does.

Enhanced Voice.

There are two types of voices which can be used on your iOS Device. They are Compact, and Enhanced. Most languages and Dialects have both versions, but only the compact versions of the dialects for your language are installed. This is because the compact versions do not require much storage space. The Enhanced versions are clearer and more natural sounding. Each enhanced voice must be downloaded. They require from 100 to 150 megabytes each. The procedure to download Enhanced voices is discussed in Customising Accessibility Settings, Section 2.2.


Alex is an enhanced voice which is available only for the English language. It takes up over 800 Megabytes. It is very natural sounding, and is a low pitched male voice. You download it the same way you download other enhanced voices.

If you decide later that you want to remove an Enhanced voice, follow these steps.

  1. Go to Settings > General > Accessibility > VoiceOver > Speech.
  2. Press the More Info button for the language you want to remove.
  3. Press the Edit button.
  4. Press the Delete button to the left of the Enhanced voice that you want to delete.
  5. Press the Done button at the top left of the display.


Events are appointments or special times that are tracked by the calendar application. Examples include weekly meetings, a friend or family member's birthday, vacations, or a medical appointment. divides Events into two categories, Recurring and non-Recurring. Recurring events are things like holidays, a weekly appointment with a trainer, or a monthly appointment for a hair cut. Non-recurring events would be things like the release of a new movie, an job interview, or getting together with a friend for dinner.

Event Types.

The calendar app is designed to keep track of three Event types. You can set different warning times for each type. The three types are:

  • Timed Appointments: These events do not take an entire day. Examples would be meetings, medical appointments, or the season premier of a new show. They have a definite start and end time.
  • All Day Events: These are events that take up an entire day such as Holidays, day trips, and special days like anniversaries.
  • Birthdays: The calendar can keep track of birthdays you have entered into your contact cards. Even though Birthdays are a kind of All Day event, they require special setup in order for them to work propperly. So will treat them as a separate event type.

In order to ensure you are reminded of the birthdays of people in your Contacts List you need to make the following modifications in the Setup application.

  1. Activate the Setup Application.
  2. Activate the "Mail, Contacts and Calendars" button.
  3. Activate the "Default Alert Times" button.
  4. Change the setting for Birthdays to something other than "None."

IMPORTANT: Remember it is not necessary to include the year as part of the birthdate. This will help safeguard the people in your contacts list in case your phone ever is lost or stolen.

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Favorites List.

When a phone number or email address is entered into the Favorites List, calls, text messages and Email Messages from that number or address will bypass the "Do Not Disturb" setting and will always ring or sound a tone when they come in. To access the Favorites list, Launch the Phone App and select the Favorites Tab.

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When a iOS Device logs into an Email Service Provider's server to download mail, this is known as a Fetch. The length of time between "fetches" for new Email can be set in the Mail, Contacts and Calendars screen of the Settings application. See the link below. The Refresh Content gesture will bypass this interval each time it is used and cause the iOS Device to check for new mail immediately.

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A filter is applied to a list of items to limit which items are visible. For example, the list of New England states includes; Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Connecticut, Rhode Island, and Massachusetts. If a filter is applied to the list to show only states with the letter "o" in their name, then only Vermont, Connecticut, and Rhode Island would remain. Search fields apply filters to lists such as contacts, the mailbox list, playlists, and the list generated by the Item Chooser. This is different than sorting a list, which simply makes all the members of the list appear alphabetically. Search engines such as Google and Bing combine filtering and sorting by filtering a list of millions of web pages to show only the ones that contain the words being searched for. Then they sort the list into the order they think is most relevant to the searcher.

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A font is a set of certain characteristics which are applied to letters, numbers and special characters. These characteristics might include a certain slant, the thickness of the characters, character spacing, straight edges instead of rounded and so on. Similar fonts are grouped into families like, Arial, Times New Roman, and Sans Serif to name a few.


Global Positioning System (GPS).

GPS lets devices anywhere in the world figure out their own locations quickly and accurately. GPS works based on analyzing signals from satellites. It's a common misconception that these satellites somehow watch GPS users or know where the GPS users are. In fact, the GPS satellites only transmit signals; the satellites don't receive or observe anything from your phone, and the satellites and GPS system operators do not know where any particular user or device is located, or even how many people are using the system.


Hot Spot

Depending on the cell phone carrier you have, Your iPhone can act like a wireless router or access point similar to what most people have in their homes. This allows another iOS device like an iPad to use your iPhone to access the internet. Your laptop computer can also make similar use of the iPhone when it's Hot Spot feature is running.

IMPORTANT: When you use your iPhone as a hot spot, all data that passes through it counts against your data plan. For these reasons, you should only use the Hot Spot feature as a last resort. It is also important to limit the devices that can use your hot spot to connect to the internet. You don't want just anyone using up your data to connect to the internet.

You can check with your cellular carrier to find out if this feature is available, and to have them turn it on. Once the feature has been turned on, you can find the settings for Hot Spot in the Settings App under Cellular.

HyperText Markup Language (HTML).

HTML stands for Hyper Text markup Language. It’s the language that web pages are written in. Did you ever wonder when you review web sites how the page knows to make some text a heading, other text simply plain, and some text an active link? How does your iOS Device know to play music when the page opens, or to run an animated clip? The answer is that in addition to the text and images shown when the web page is displayed, there are hundreds of hidden commands that tell the web page to appear or act just so. Many companies also use HTML when they send you emails so they can embed links or make the message more fancy. Unfortunately, unscrupulous web site owners and hackers can embed other commands in the hidden HTML code as well.



The Inbox is a folder used by an email app where new mail is placed. If a message is read, but not acted upon, it will remain in the Inbox until it is deleted or moved to another folder.

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Insertion Point.

The Insertion Point usually appears as a blinking line or box in a Text Field that has been activated for editing. Any edits in an Active Text Field, including typing, cuts, pastes and deletions, take place at the Insertion Point.

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Landscape Orientation.

When the iOS Device is held with the long sides horizontal on the top and bottom, and the home screen button on the left or right side, it is held in Landscape Orientation, because it mimics the way an artist orients a canvas to paint a landscape. For most of the lessons it will be easier to hold the iOS Device in Portrait orientation, which means the long sides are vertical and the Home Screen button is on the bottom.

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Location Services.

Location services allows your iOS Device to report its location to various applications and services. For example, to get directions from your current location to a particular address, your iOS Device needs to tell the Maps application where you are. The Maps application gets this information through location services.

NOTE ABOUT PRIVACY: Some people do not like their location tracked that closely. If you are willing to give up the convenience provided by location services, then you can turn these services off by doing the following:

  1. Activate the Settings App.
  2. Activate the Privacy settings.
  3. NOTE: You can skip the above steps by using Siri and saying, "Show Privacy Settings."

  4. Find the Location Services button and toggle the setting to Off using the Activate gesture.


Mailbox Screen.

The Mailbox Screen displays a list of received, sent, or deleted mail messages. The screen is divided into three parts. For details see the first reference below.

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Mail Message Screen.

This screen displays the contents of a single mail message. The message may be one which is being read, or one that is being composed. The layout of the screen varies slightly between Reading Mode and Compose Mode. For details see the references below.

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Message Body.

The Message Body begins just below the message header. This is where thebulk of the message text is. The body can contain pictures, links, headings and many other items. Use an Activate gesture to activate the link.

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Message Header.

The area at the top of an open Email message That contains the "To," "Carbon Copy," "Blind Carbon Copy," "Subject" field, and the date and time the message was sent.

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MMS, Multimedia Message Service

This is a standard way to send messages that include multimedia content to and from mobile phones. Pictures, videos and sound clips can be attached to an MMS text message.



When an iOS Device is linked to a bluetooth device such as a pair of headphones, a keyboard, or a bluetooth system in a vehicle, the devices are said to be paired.

Party Line.

Beginning in 1878 a single telephone number was often shared by multiple homes or businesses in a geographic area. These lines often were available at a discount over dedicated numbers, and in war time, these were often the only circuits available. There was no privacy on a party line, and often groups of neighbors used them for gosip. Worse still, if you had to make an emergency call, you could not do so until everyone cleared the line. Party lines had died out by the 1980 in most locales.

Photo Stream.

The Photo Stream is a feature of Apple's iCloud service and is a centralized location that allows photos and videos to be shared across multiple iOS devices. You do not need a sync cable to share photos and videos in this way, but a WiFi connection is required. You can create a photo stream to share photos and videos between only your own devices, or you can allow others to "subscribe" to it. In turn, you can also subscribe to the Photo Streams created by others if they allow it. To activate Photo Stream do the following:

  1. Activate the Settings App.
  2. Activate iCloud from the Settings Main Menu.
  3. Activate the "Photos and Camera" button.
  4. Turn on Photo Stream.

When a WiFi connection becomes available, apicture or video taken with one device is automatically shared with all your other devices which have Photo Stream enabled.

There are two types of Popups. One appears on your iOS Device, and the other appears on web pages.

On your iOS Device.

This is a rectangular region that appears on the display on top of the items that were originally there. This region is also known as a window. Popups are used for one of the following purposes:

  • As alerts for certain conditions, like a low battery warning.
  • To present a menu of actions to choose from, such as the Popup that appears to ask if you want to delete a draft message or save it.
  • To ask you to enter information, like the popup that asks you to enter your password to access the App Store

When the iPhone displays a popup, there is usually a cancel button.

On the Web.

On the web a popup refers to a small window which appears on top of the web page you are viewing. It is usually used by advertisers, and most often gets in the way. Your web browser has settings to block display of these popup windows, but sometimes this can interfere with the operation of a web site. However, in most cases, you want to block popups.

Portrait Orientation.

When the iOS Device is held with the long sides vertically on the right and left, and the round button centered beneath the screen, it is in Portrait Orientation. This is named for the way an artist orients a canvas when painting a portrait. The long sides are vertical and the shorter sides are horizontal.

The Lock Orientation Setting.

NOTE: You can use the method below to lock your iOS Device in Portrait orientation, however, this can affect the way certain apps function. For example, you can switch an iPhone from the Day TimeView to the Week TimeView by rotating your device to Landscape Orientation. You will lose the ability to see the week TimeView if you lock your orientation to Portrait. On an iPad you will lose the ability for the Mail app to enter split screen mode.

  1. Tap any Icon in the Status Bar.
  2. Use the Previous Screen gesture to bring up the Control Center.
  3. Explore the screen or use the Next and Previous Item gestures to find the "Lock Orientation" toggle button.
  4. Activate the button to toggle the setting on and off.
  5. Press the Home button to close the Control Center and return to the screen you were previously on.

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Push Notifications.

This allows Email service providers who support this capability to notify you immediately when new Email messages are received. This feature will expend battery charge faster.

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Recent Calls List.

This list displays a list of all recent calls. This includes calls you missed, calls you answered, and calls you made. You can dial any number from the list by making it the Current item and then using an Activate gesture. To access the list open the Phone App and select the Recents Tab.

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Screen Curtain.

The Screen Curtain is available to VoiceOver users. It blanks out the screen so that others cannot see what you are doing. You activate it with the Screen Curtain gesture. It should be noted that with the screen curtain engaged, a message on the locked Screen which you have left in case anyone finds your iOS Device will not be visible.

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SMS, Short Message Service.

The Short Message Service was the original method used by cellular phones to transfer text messages. Messages are transferred from one phone number to another over the cellular network. SMS messages are limited to 160 characters in length, and cannot contain pictures, sounds, videos, or any other type of attachment.


Sorting changes the order of a list of items either alphabetically or numerically. The list generated by the Item Chooser is an example of a sorted list. This is different than Filtering a list, which actually hides or removes items from the list. Search engines such as Google and Bing combine filtering and sorting by filtering a list of millions of web pages to show only the ones that contain the words being searched for. Then they sort the list into the order they think is most relevant to the searcher.

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This is a one line Text Field that contains text that summarizes what the message is about.

NOTE: Messages with no subject or with subjects that are very general like "Hi there," or "Check this out!" are often used by hackers who want you to open a message that contains malicious content. It's best to delete them, or at least verify with the apparent sender that he or she actually intended to send the message.

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Text Alignment.

This refers to the positioning of one or more lines of text relative to the page center or margins. Lines of text can come in one of four alignments:

  • Left Alignment: Lines of text or characters begin at the left margin of the page or screen area. This is the standard for most text. This produces paragraphs with vertically straight left sides, but varied right sides.
  • Center Alignment: The center of each line of text or characters is positioned in the horizontal center of the page or screen. This causes the space between the left and right ends of the line and their respective edges of the screen to be the same. This alignment is most commonly used for titles or section headings. This produces paragraphs with varied left and right sides.
  • Right Aligned: Each line of text or characters ends at the right margin of the page or screen. This produces paragraphs whose right edges form a straight line. This is most often used to make numbers line up in columns.
  • Justified: This causes both the left and right side of the paragraph to form straight edges. This is done by inserting extra space between words in each line. Its most commonly used in multi-column formats such as newspapersor text books..


When one Email message generates replies, and the replies generate more replies, the whole thing is called a Thread. For example Sue Emails Bob to ask if he would like to meet for lunch. Bob replies with “Yes. Sue says, “OK. Where? Bob says, “Rome! This is a four message thread.

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A Toolbar is a row of buttons that are shortcuts to commonly used functions. Examples of toolbar buttons are Bold, Underline, and Italic.

Time View.

The Calendar App displays dates and events in several different layouts called "Time Views" by Time Views can be displayed only one at a time. They are vertically centered in the display, and take up the majority of the available display area for the Calendar Application. The Calendar App will remember which Time View you were using when the app was exited, and return to that view the next time it is started. The Time Views are:

  • Year View: This is a grid displaying the months of a year. The grid is 4 rows deep by three columns wide.
  • Month View: This is a grid that has 7 columns, one for each day of the week, and from 5 to 7 rows depending on whether or not the month beig viewed starts or ends in the middle of the week.
  • Week View: This is another grid. There are seven columns, one for each day of the week, and 26 rows. The first row is a header row containing the days of the week. The second row contains any all day events, if any, that are happening during the week being viewed. The next 24 rows are for each hour of the day.
  • Day View: This view is similar to Week View, except that it has only one column. The column is wider, so more ofthe event description is visible on the display.
  • Event List View: This view displays a list of the events on your calendar. If a day has no events, then it is skipped.

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Typing Predictor

The Typing predictor appears at the bottom of some text fields when they are activated for editing. It tries to predict the word to be type next, or to complete the word being typed. If it predicts the correct word, the Activategesture can be used on the prediction to fill in the word rather than typing it out one character at a time.

If the Typing Predictor gets in the way, it can be temporarily hidden using these steps.

  1. Make one of the predictions the Current Item. The Rotor will switch to the Actions function.
  2. Use the Set Mode gesture to set the mode to "Hide Predictions."
  3. Use an Activate gesture to hide the Predictor. The Typing Predictor will shrink down to a thin line above the typing keyboard.
  4. To display the Typing Predictor again make it the Current Item and use an Activate gesture.

The Typing Predictor can be permanently hidden using these steps:

  1. Activate the Settings App.
  2. Select "General" from the main Settings menu.
  3. Select Keyboards.
  4. Use the "Typing Predictor" button to toggle the Typing Predictor to "Off".


Universal Resource Locator (URL).

URL is computer speak for a web address.. For example's URL is Web addresses are not case sensitive. In other words it doesn't matter whether or not you use capital letters.

Some websites begin with https instead of just http. The https means that the data sent between the web site and your iOS Device is encrypted. This prevents anyone who intercepts your transmissions from understanding them.


Wake/Sleep Button.

When the iOS Device is held in portrait orientation, the wake/sleep button will be near the upper right corner. This button has several functions:

  • Power your iOS Device on or off by holding the button down for three to five seconds.
  • click the button to manually put your iOS Device to sleep. This is also known as locking your iOS Device.
  • click the button when the iOS Device is sleeping, or locked, to bring up the Unlock option. This is also known as "Waking up your iOS Device."
  • When your iOS Device is receiving an incoming call, press the button twice quickly to send the caller immediately to Email.
  • When your iOS Device is receiving an incoming call, press the Wake/Sleep button once to silence the ringer, this gives you time to answer the call without the ringer bothering everyone or covering up what Voiceover has to say.

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Web Browser.

A web browser is a program or app designed to display web pages in a format easy to read by people. Web pages are written in HyperText Markup Language, (HTML). A browser reads the hidden commands in the HTML and acts on them to render the page. On your iOS Device the default browser is Safari. Other browsers commonly in use are Internet Explorer, Fire Fox, and Google Chrome. Edge isMicrosoft's up and coming replacement for Internet Explorer.

WiFi/Wireless Network.

A WiFi or Wireless network is most commonly found in homes, public areas like college campuses and airports, and businesses like hotels and coffee shops. They are generally localized to a small area such as a building, home, or public common area. WiFi networks can be public access or secured. Secured networks require a password before they can be joined.

Data downloaded or transferred between an iOS device using a WiFi connection does not incur charges from cellular carriers, nor does it count toward your plan limits. Data transfers are usually faster over WiFi than over cellular networks as well. Wherever possible it is best to connect to the internet over a secured WiFi network rather than through the cellular network. Secured WiFi networks require a password before you can join them, and all data transmissions to and from your iOS Device are encrypted. This makes them more difficult to read when intercepted. Connecting to an unsecured or public WiFi network is more risky. Your transmissions are not encrypted, and you never really know who else is on that network or what they are doing.

Your iOS Device will indicate if you have this type of connection in the Status Bar.

NOTE: Your iOS Device will only perform automatic backups when connected to a WiFi network, or to your computer. It will not backup over a cellular network.

To Join a WiFi network follow these steps:

  1. Go to the Setup application from the Home Screen.
  2. Activate the WiFi button.
  3. Use the Next Item gesture until you hear the name of the WiFi network you want to join.
  4. Use an Activate gesture to select the network.
  5. If the network is secured, you will be prompted for a password. Enter it now using the keyboard and press the Join button to complete the connection.

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